Supplementary Information

  • All Recipes

  • Stuffed Peppers Introduction

  • What are Bell Peppers?

  • Baking Stuffed Peppers

  • Calories In Stuffed Pepper

  • Can You Freeze Stuffed Peppers

  • Cooking Stuffed Peppers

  • Freezing Stuffed Peppers

  • Stuffed Peppers Calories

  • What are Stuffed Peppers

  • What is Capsicum?

  • Recipes

  • All-American Stuffed Peppers

  • Almonds And Raisins Meat Stuffed Peppers Recipe

  • Anchovy Stuffed Peppers

  • Arugula Roast Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Bacon And Egg Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Bacon Cream Cheese Stuffed Jalapeno

  • Bacon Mushroom Stuffed Peppers

  • Baked Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Baked Stuffed Peppers

  • Barley Corn Stuffed Peppers

  • BBQ Stuffed Peppers

  • Beans And Beef Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Beef And Veggies Stuffed Peppers

  • Beef Noodles Stuffed Yellow Peppers

  • Beef Skillet Cheese Shells Stuffed Peppers

  • Beef Stroganoff Stuffed Yellow Peppers

  • Beef Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Beef Stuffed Poblano Peppers

  • Bell Pepper Stuffed

  • Bell Pepper Stuffed With Ground Beef

  • Best Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Best Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Best Stuffed Peppers

  • Best Stuffed Pepper Soup

  • Betty Crocker Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Betty Crocker Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Betty Crocker Stuffed Peppers

  • Black Eyed Peas Stuffed Peppers

  • Brocolli Potato Stuffed Peppers

  • Brown And White Stuffed Pepper Rings

  • Brown Rice Chorizo Stuffed Peppers

  • Bulgarian Stuffed Peppers

  • Butternut Stuffed Orange Peppers

  • Cajun Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Canned Stuffed Peppers

  • Carrot Stuffed Green Bell Peppers

  • Cayenne Crackers Stuffed Peppers

  • Cheese Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers

  • Cheese Stuffed Peppers

  • Cheese Stuffed Poblano Peppers

  • Cheesy Meat Stuffed Peppers

  • Cheesy Stuffed Peppers

  • Chicken And Potato Stuffed Yellow Peppers

  • Chicken Curry Stuffed Peppers

  • Chicken Salsa Verde Stuffed Peppers

  • Chicken Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Chicken Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Chicken Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers

  • Chicken Stuffed Peppers

  • Chicken stuffed Poblano Peppers

  • Chicken Stuffed Yellow Peppers Bake

  • Chilaquiles Stuffed Peppers

  • Chili Hot Chicken Stuffed Peppers

  • Chorizo Stuffed Peppers

  • Coco Basil Chicken Stuffed Peppers

  • Cooked Stuffed Peppers

  • Cooking Light Stuffed Peppers

  • Cooking Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Cooking Stuffed Peppers In The Oven

  • Corned Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Cottage Eggplants Stuffed Peppers Recipe

  • Couscous Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Couscous Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Couscous Stuffed Peppers

  • Crab Deviled Peppers

  • Crab Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Cream Cheese Stuffed Banana Peppers

  • Cream Cheese Stuffed Mini Peppers

  • Cream Cheese Stuffed Peppers

  • Cream Dory Shrimps Stuffed Peppers

  • Crockpot Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Crockpot Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Crock Pot Stuffed Peppers

  • Crockpot Stuffed Peppers

  • Crockpot Stuffed Pepper Soup

  • Crockpot Stuffed Peppers Soup

  • Dad's Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Dad's Stuffed Peppers

  • Delicious Stuffed Peppers

  • Easy Bell Pepper Recipe

  • Easy Recipe For Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Easy Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Easy Stuffed Bell Peppers Recipe

  • Easy Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Easy Stuffed Pepper Soup

  • Easy Stuffed Peppers Recipe With Ground Beef

  • Easy Stuffed Pepper With Rice

  • Farro Braised Lamb Stuffed Peppers

  • Fennel Stuffed Peppers

  • Feta Stuffed Peppers

  • Flame Roasted Stuffed Peppers

  • Garbanzo Couscous Stuffed Peppers

  • Giada Stuffed Peppers

  • Ginger Spiced Chicken And Lamb Stuffed Peppers

  • Goat Cheese Stuffed Peppers

  • Good Stuffed Pepper Recipe

  • Gourmet Stuffed Pepper

  • Greek Stuffed Peppers

  • Greek Stuffed Pepper With Rice

  • Greek Style Stuffed Peppers

  • Green Peppers Stuffed

  • Grilled Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Grilled Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers

  • Grilled Stuffed Peppers

  • Ground Beef Bell Pepper

  • Ground Beef Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Ground Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Guacamole Stuffed Peppers

  • Halloumi Stuffed Peppers

  • Ham And Cheese Stuffed Peppers

  • Ham And Red Potato Stuffed Peppers

  • Healthy Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Healthy Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Healthy Stuffed Peppers

  • Hot And Sweet Stuffed Peppers

  • Hot Stuffed Cherry Peppers

  • How To Cook Stuffed Green Peppers

  • How To Cook Stuffed Peppers

  • How To Make Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • How To Make Stuffed Cherry Peppers

  • How To Make Stuffed Green Peppers

  • How to Make Stuffed Green Peppers

  • How To Make Stuffed Peppers

  • How To Make Stuffed Red Peppers

  • Hungarian Stuffed Peppers

  • Ingredients For Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Ingredients For Stuffed Peppers

  • Inside-Out Stuffed Peppers Meat Loaf

  • Italian Sausage Stuffed Peppers

  • Italian Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Italian Stuffed Cherry Peppers

  • Italian Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Italian Stuffed Peppers

  • Italian Stuffed Red Peppers

  • Italian Style Stuffed Peppers

  • Jalapeno Stuffed Peppers

  • Jasmine Rice Stuffed Yellow Peppers

  • Jasmine Stuffed Peppers

  • Kielbasa Stuffed Peppers

  • Lamb Stuffed Peppers

  • Lamb Stuffed Tomatoes And Peppers

  • Lemon Chicken Stuffed Peppers Recipe

  • Lentil Stuffed Peppers

  • Low Carb Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Low Carb Stuffed Peppers

  • Low Fat Stuffed Peppers

  • Macaroni Stuffed Peppers

  • Mango Chutney Chicken Stuffed Peppers

  • Meatless Stuffed Peppers

  • Meatloaf Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Meat Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Meat Stuffed Peppers

  • Mediterranean Stuffed Peppers

  • Mexican Cheese Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Mexican Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Mexican Stuffed Peppers

  • Mexican Stuffed Poblano Peppers

  • Microwave Stuffed Peppers

  • Minced Stuffed Peppers

  • Mini Stuffed Peppers

  • Moroccan Stuffed Peppers

  • Mozzarella Melt Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Mushroom Stuffed Peppers

  • Mustard Pimiento Kernels Stuffed Peppers

  • New Orleans Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Orzo Stuffed Peppers

  • Paella Stuffed Peppers

  • Paleo Stuffed Peppers

  • Pasta Cheese Corn Stuffed Peppers

  • Peanut Chicken Stuffed Peppers

  • Peppers Stuffed With Cheese

  • Peppers Stuffed With Couscous

  • Peppers Stuffed With Rice

  • Pickled Pork Stuffed Peppers

  • Pickled Stuffed Cherry Peppers

  • Pilaf Ratatouille Stuffed Peppers

  • Plantain And Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Poblano Stuffed Peppers

  • Polenta Stuffed Peppers

  • Pollo Penne Pesto Stuffed Peppers

  • Pork And Cauliflower Stuffed Peppers

  • Pork Celery Stuffed Peppers Bake

  • Pork Stuffed Peppers

  • Potato Hash Browns Stuffed Peppers

  • Pozole Chicken Stuffed Peppers

  • Pressure Cooker Stuffed Peppers

  • Prosciutto Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Quick Stuffed Peppers

  • Quinoa Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Quinoa Stuffed Peppers

  • Quinoa Stuffed Red Peppers

  • Raisin Mango Chicken Stuffed Peppers

  • Raisins In Stuffed Red And Green Peppers

  • Ranch Mashed Potato Stuffed Peppers

  • Recipe For Stuffed Green Bell Peppers

  • Recipe For Stuffed Green Pepper Soup

  • Recipe For Stuffed Pepper With Sausage

  • Recipe For Vegetarian Stuffed Peppers

  • Red Stuffed Peppers

  • Rice Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Rice Stuffed Peppers

  • Risotto Stuffed Peppers

  • Roasted Green Pepper

  • Roasted Stuffed Peppers

  • Roast Stuffed Peppers

  • Romanian Stuffed Peppers

  • Salsa Chile Stuffed Peppers

  • Sauce For Stuffed Peppers

  • Sausage Stuffed Banana Peppers

  • Sausage Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Sausage Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers

  • Sausage Stuffed Pepper

  • Seafood Stuffed Peppers

  • Seven Layers Stuffed Peppers

  • Shrimp Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Shrimp Stuffed Peppers

  • Side Dishes For Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Simple Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Simple Stuffed Peppers

  • Slow Cooker Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Slow Cooker Stuffed Pepper

  • Slow Cooker Stuffed Peppers

  • Slow Cooker Stuffed Pepper Soup

  • Slow Cooker Stuffed Peppers Recipe

  • Slow Cooker Stuffed Peppers Soup

  • Smoked Salmon Stuffed Peppers

  • Sour Cream Oats Stuffed Peppers

  • Southwestern Stuffed Peppers

  • Spanish Rice Chili Beef Stuffed Peppers

  • Spanish Stuffed Peppers

  • Spicy Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Spicy Stuffed Peppers

  • Spinach Pinto Stuffed Peppers

  • Spinach Zucchini Bacon Stuffed Peppers

  • Stouffer's Stuffed Peppers

  • Stove Top Stuffed Peppers

  • Stuffed Anaheim Peppers

  • Stuffed Baby Peppers

  • Stuffed Baked Bell Peppers

  • Stuffed Banana Peppers

  • Stuffed Banana Peppers With Sausage

  • Stuffed Bell Pepper

  • Stuffed Bell Pepper Casserole

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers And Rice

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers For Slow Cookers

  • Stuffed Bell Pepper Soup

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Beef

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Brown Rice

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Cheese

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Chicken

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers with Ground Beef

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers Without Rice

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Rice

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Sausage

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Shrimp

  • Stuffed Bell Peppers With Tomato Sauce

  • Stuffed Bell Pepper With Rice

  • Stuffed Cherry Peppers

  • Stuffed Cherry Peppers Prosciutto

  • Stuffed Chili Peppers

  • Stuffed Cubanelle Peppers

  • Stuffed Green Chili Peppers

  • Stuffed Green Pepper

  • Stuffed Green Pepper Casserole

  • Stuffed Green Pepper Recipes With Rice

  • Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Stuffed Green Peppers

  • Stuffed Green Pepper Soup

  • Stuffed Green Pepper Soup For Crockpot

  • Stuffed Green Peppers With Ground Beef

  • Stuffed Green Peppers With Hamburger

  • Stuffed Green Peppers Without Rice

  • Stuffed Green Peppers With Rice

  • Stuffed Grilled Peppers

  • Stuffed Hatch Peppers

  • Stuffed Hot Banana Peppers

  • Stuffed Hot Cherry Peppers

  • Stuffed Hot Pepper Dip

  • Stuffed Hot Peppers

  • Stuffed Hungarian Peppers

  • Stuffed Italian Peppers

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers Baked

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers On the Grill

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers With Bacon

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers With Cream Cheese

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers With Sausage

  • Stuffed Jalapeno Peppers Wrapped In Bacon

  • Stuffed Mexican Peppers

  • Stuffed Minced Peppers

  • Stuffed Mini Peppers

  • Stuffed Pepper Appetizer

  • Stuffed Pepper Casserole

  • Stuffed Pepper Couscous

  • Stuffed Pepper Dinner

  • Stuffed Pepper Dip

  • Stuffed Pepper Ideas

  • Stuffed Pepper Ingredients

  • Stuffed Peppers And Rice

  • Stuffed Pepper Sauce

  • Stuffed Peppers Casserole

  • Stuffed Pepper Feta

  • Stuffed Peppers Feta Cheese

  • Stuffed Peppers For Oven

  • Stuffed Peppers For Two

  • Stuffed Peppers In Crockpot

  • Stuffed Peppers In Slow Cooker

  • Stuffed Peppers Minced

  • Stuffed Peppers On the Grill

  • Stuffed Pepper Soup

  • Stuffed Peppers sausage

  • Stuffed Peppers With Beef

  • Stuffed Peppers With Brown Rice

  • Stuffed Peppers With Cheese

  • Stuffed Peppers With Chicken

  • Stuffed Peppers With Chicken And Rice

  • Stuffed Pepper With Beef

  • Stuffed Pepper With Ground Beef

  • Stuffed Pepper With Ground Beef Recipes

  • Stuffed Pepper With Mince

  • Stuffed Poblano Peppers

  • Stuffed Red And Green Bell Peppers

  • Taco Burger Stuffed Yellow Peppers

  • Tex Mex Carnitas Stuffed Peppers

  • Tomatillo Beans Stuffed Peppers

  • Tuna Crunch Stuffed Peppers

  • Turkey Sausage Stuffed Peppers

  • Veal Stuffed Bell Peppers

  • Venezuela Stuffed Peppers

  • Zucchini Stuffed Peppers

  • Stuffed Peppers

    All you wanted to know about stuffed peppers

    A Great Picture of Stuffed Peppers

    Today, you can find chili peppers of some type in almost every corner of the world. And where you find chilies, you will find some variation of a dish containing stuffed peppers as part of the native cuisine. This was not always the case. Just a few hundred years ago, chili peppers existed only in the New World – specifically, Central and South America. With the discovery of America, however, and ambitious traders, the chili pepper in its incredible variation took hold of everyone’s palate and spread like wildfire throughout the world like no other fruit or vegetable.

    The Origin of Chili Peppers

     

    7,500 years ago, before anywhere else in the world, Native Central and South Americans harvested a variety of wild peppers from Peru to Mexico for food and medicine – the Mayans used them to treat asthma, coughs and sore throats. The Aztecs used chilies to relieve toothaches.Between 5200 and 3400 BC, native farmers of the Americas began cultivating those chili peppers to create even more varieties in their gardens. Thousands of years later the Europeans would arrive.  Christopher Columbus is generally thought to have brought chili peppers back to Europe as a gift to Queen Isabella of Spain, his benefactor. The name ‘pepper’ or ‘pimiento’ also may have come from Columbus, who thought the tiny red spicy fruit he had found wasreminiscent of the Asian spice peppercorn, so he named it “red pepper.”

    As early as 1493 Peter Martyr wrote that Columbus brought home with him "pepper more pungent than that from the Caucasus." In 1494 the physician to Columbus's fleet on his second voyage referred to the plant in a letter to Spanish authorities. Twenty years later the plant and its uses were described again in detail by another explorer for Spain.

    Fragments of different types of peppers have been found in Peruvian ruins over 2,000 years old. Peruvian garments from the first century contain embroidered chilies. The Olmecs, Toltecs, and Aztecs also are known to have cultivated and used chili peppers. In the first half of the 16th century, voyagers to the Americas encountered many forms of peppers, not only in the West Indies but in Central America, Mexico, Peru, Chile, and other locations. By the early 17th century virtually every form of chili pepper known today had been found, all being grown by the Native American Indians.

    Peppers were introduced into Spain by Columbus in 1493, were known in England by 1548, and in Central Europe by 1585 or earlier. Peppers were first described in Europe in the German herbal of Leonard Fuchs in 1542. Fuchs mistakenly thought peppers came from India. Like several other New World imports like tomatoes, it appears that the poor were the only ones willing to eat them. They are not even mentioned in cookbooks which at the time were mainly only available to the literate and elite. In the 17th century they were taken to India, China and southeastern Asia by the Portuguese.

    It has been commercially grown in the United States since at least 1600, when Spanish colonists planted seeds and grew chile using irrigation from the Rio Chama in northern New Mexico.During the 1700s, peppers were popping up in other parts of the country. Purportedly, in 1768,Minorcan settlers in St. Augustine, Florida, introduced the datil pepper, a relative of the Chinese species. Other introductions were also occurring during the eighteenth century. In 1785, George Washington planted two rows of "bird peppers" and one row of cayenne at Mount Vernon, but it is not known how he acquired the seed. Another influential American, Thomas Jefferson, was also growing peppers from seed imported from Mexico. By the early 1800s, commercial seed varieties became available to the American public. In 1806 a botanist named McMahon listed four varieties for sale, and in 1826, another botanist named Thornburn listed "Long' (cayenne), "Tomato-Shaped' (squash), 'Bell' (oxheart), 'Cherry' and 'Bird' (West Indian) peppers as available for gardeners. Two years later, squash peppers were cultivated in North American gardens and that same year (1828), the 'California Wonder Bell' pepper was first named and grown commercially. 

     

    Chili Pepper Vernacular

     

    There are several names for Capsicum, which can cause confusion. Pepper, chili, chile, chilli, aji, paprika, and Capsicum are used interchangeably for plants in the genus Capsicum. The word "chile" is a variation of "chil" derived from the Nahuatl (Aztec), whereas "aji" is a variation of "axi" from the extinct Arawak dialect of the Caribbean. The "e" ending in chile is the accurate Hispanic spelling of the word, whereas in English the e is changed to an i. Chile pepper generally refers to the spicy chile varieties. However, chile means pepper (Capsicum) whether the fruits are pungent or not. Generally, chili by itself is used to identify the state dish of Texas, which is a combination of spicy chiles and meat. Bell pepper generally refers to non-pungent blocky chile types.  Bell apparently refers to the fruit's blocky shape, with four lobes preferred in the United States. Bell types were first mentioned in 1699 by the English pirate, Lionel Wafer, who found them growing in Panama. In the United States "Pimiento" refers to only a single type of thick-fleshed, bright-red sweet pepper. It yields the brilliant stuffing in olives, the red particles in "pimento cheese," and the pimiento we buy in tiny cans or jars. In the United States, the non-spicy, large-fruited form has become by far the most extensively grown.  The sweet bell pepper is also known sometimes as a “mango pepper.”

     

    Biological Classification of Chili Peppers

     

    Chili Peppers belong to the nightshade family, Solanáceas (which alsoincludes tomato, potato, tobacco, and petunia) and the genus Capsicum. Peppercorn, on the other hand, belongs to the Piperaceae genus. Black Pepper’s scientific name is Piper nigrum.  Although there are hundreds of varieties of chili peppers, the genus Capsicum only really consists of approximately 22 wild species and five domesticated species: C. annumC. baccatumC. chinenseC. frutescens, and C. pubescens.  Chile fruits are considered vegetables, but are actually berries botanically. Chile types usually are classified by fruit characteristics, i.e. pungency, color, shape, flavor, size, and their use. Despite their immense trait differences most chile cultivars commercially cultivated in the world belong to the species, C. annuum. The tabasco (C. frutescens) and habanero (C. chinense), are the best-known exceptions.

    The C. chinense species, like all Capsicum species, originated in the New World. However, the French taxonomist who named this species in 1776 got his seed from China. Habanero, or Scotch Bonnet, is the best known chile of this species. Extremely hot, the Habanero is rated 200,000 scoville heat units. Fruit shape can vary from long and slender to short and obtuse. Fruit can be extremely pungent and aromatic, with persistent pungency when eaten. C. chinense is popular in all tropical regions.

    The C. frutescens species is represented by two cultivars, tabasco and malagueta. Tabasco is the most common cultivar of C. frutescens. The red fruit is the ingredient in Tabasco sauce. The malagueta is a popular cultivar in Brazil. It is not related to Aframomummelegueta, the melegueta or Guinea pepper, from Africa which is related to ginger.

    In South America, C. baccatum is the most commonly grown species, where it is called aji, not chile. Three botanical varieties of C. baccatum are recognized: C. baccatum var. baccatumC. baccatum var. pendulum, and C. baccatum var. microcarpumC. baccatum flowers have yellow, brown, or dark green spots on the corolla. As many different pod-types of chiles (in relation to shape, color, and size) exist within C. baccatum as in C. annuum. Fruits vary in pungency from non-pungent to very hot. They exemplify unique aromatics and flavors that can be overpowering to some people. C. baccatum is the chile of choice when making ceviche (marinated fish).

    Another of the five species, C. pubescens, is a relatively unknown chile. It is found from Mexico to Peru, growing in the Andean South America and the Central American highlands. Common names include rocoto orlocoto in South America. Other common names are manzano and peron because the fruits can be apple- or pear-shaped. Instead of white flowers, it has purple flowers with large nectaries. The presence of conspicuous leaf pubescence and black seeds readily distinguish this chile from any of the other species. This chile is adapted to cooler temperatures, 4.4° to 21.1°C (40° to 70°F), but does not tolerate frost.

    Chili Pepper Hotness and the Scoville Scale

     

    Pungency, or spiciness, is produced by the capsaicinoids, alkaloid compounds, which are found only in the plant genus, Capsicum. Capsaicin is a powerful and stable alkaloid that can be detected by human taste buds in solutions of ten parts per million. Capsaicin's composition (C18H27NO3) is similar to peperin (C17H19NO3), which gives black pepper its bite. The capsaicinoids are produced in glands on the placenta of the fruit. While seeds are not the source of pungency, they occasionally absorb capsaicin because of their proximity to the placenta. No other plant part produces capsaicinoids.

    Chile pungency is expressed in Scoville Heat Units. The Scoville Organoleptic Test was the first reliable measurement of the pungency of chiles. This test used a panel of five human agents, who tasted a chile sample and then recorded the heat level. A sample was diluted until pungency could no longer be detected. The organoleptic method or taste test has been the standard method for pungency analysis. Although this method is widely used, it has limitations. Tasters must be trained and their ability to test many samples is restricted by the heat of the test solution. Taster fatigue is a real phenomenon and tasters are also not able to distinguish between the different capsaicinoids. Therefore, the Scoville Organoleptic Test has been replaced with instrumental methods. The most common instrumental method is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It provides accurate and efficient analysis of content and type of capsaicinoids present in a chile sample. HPLC analysis has become the standard method for routine analysis by the processing industry. The method is rapid and can handle a larger number of samples. A common practice today is to multiply capsaicinoid ppm by 15 to convert to SHU.

     

    Scoville Scale

    Chili Pepper

    Heat Range

     

     

    Sweet Bell

    0

    Pimento

    0

    Cherry

    00 ~ 500

    Pepperoncini

    100 ~ 500

    El-Paso

    500 ~ 700

    Santa Fe Grande

    500 ~ 750

    Coronado

    700 ~ 1,000

    Espanola

    1,000 ~ 2,000

    Poblano

    1,000 ~ 2,000

    Ancho

    1,000 ~ 2,000

    Mulato

    1,000 ~ 2,000

    Pasilla

    1,000 ~ 2,000

    Anaheim

    500 ~ 2,500

    Sandia

    500 ~ 2,500

    NuMex Big Jim

    500 ~ 2,500

    Rocotillo

    1,500 ~ 2,500

    Pulla

    700 ~ 3,000

    Mirasol

    2,500 ~ 5,000

    Guajillo

    2,500 ~ 5,000

    Jalapeno

    2,500 ~ 8,000

    Chipotle

    5,000 ~ 8,000

    Hot Wax

    5,000 ~ 10,000

    Puya

    5,000 ~ 10,000

    Hidalgo

    6,000 ~ 17,000

    Serrano

    8,000 ~ 22,000

    Manzano

    12,000 ~ 30,000

    Shipkas

    12,000 ~ 30,000

    De Arbol

    15,000 ~ 30,000

    Jaloro

    30,000 ~ 50,000

    Aji

    30,000 ~ 50,000

    Tabasco

    30,000 ~ 50,000

    Cayenne

    30,000 ~ 50,000

    Santaka

    40,000 ~ 50,000

    Super Chile

    40,000 ~ 50,000

    Piquin

    40,000 ~ 58,000

    Yatsafusa

    50,000 ~ 75,000

    Haimen

    70,000 ~ 80,000

    Chiltepin

    60,000 ~ 85,000

    Thai

    50,000 ~ 100,000

    Tabiche

    85,000 ~ 115,000

    Bahamian

    95,000 ~ 110,000

    Carolina Cayenne

    100,000 ~ 125,000

    Kumataka

    125,000 ~ 150,000

    Jamaican Hot

    100,000 ~ 200,000

    Birds Eye

    100,000 ~ 225,000

    Tepin (Wild)

    100,000 ~ 265,000

    Devil Toung

    125,000 ~ 325,000

    Fatalii

    125,000 ~ 325,000

    Orange Habanero

    150,000 ~ 325,000

    Scotch Bonnet

    150,000 ~ 325,000

    Chocolate Habanero

    300,000 ~ 425,000

    Red Savina Habanero

    350,000 ~ 575,000

    Dorset Naga

    800,000 ~ 900,000

    Naga or BhutJolokia

    800,000 ~ 1,001,300

    New Mexico Scorpion

    1,191,595

    Naga Viper

    1,382,118

    Trinidad Scorpion Butch T

    1,463,700

    Standard Pepper Spray

    2,000,000–5,300,000

    Pure Capsaicin

    15-16,000,000

     

     

     

    Chili Pepper Nutrition

     

    A green, New Mexican chile pod contains three times the vitamin C of a 'Valencia' orange and provides the minimum daily requirement. As green pods turn red, pro-vitamin A content increases until they contain twice the pro-vitamin A of a carrot. A one half tablespoon of red chile powder furnishes the minimum daily requirement of vitamin A.

    Fresh Green Chile Peppers- The following information is for one serving of hot green chile peppers. That would be about one half cup of hot green chile peppers, or 75 grams. This general information is for any variety of raw green chile peppers.

     

    Macronutrients: Water: 65.80g, Calories: 30Protein: 1.50 g Carbohydrates: 7.10 g, Fiber: 1.1 g, Sugars: 3.82 g, Total Fat: 0.15 g, Saturated Fat: 0.016 g, Monounsaturated Fat: 0.008 g, Polyunsaturated Fat: 0.082 g, Cholesterol: 0 mg Micronutrients: Calcium: 14 mg Iron: 0.90 mg Magnesium: 19 mg Phosphorus: 35 mg Potassium: 255 mg Sodium: 5 mg Zinc: 0.22 mg Vitamin C: 181.9 mg Thiamin: 0.068 mg Riboflavin: 0.068 mg Niacin: 0.712 mg Pantothenic Acid: 0.046 mg Vitamin B6: 0.209 mg Vitamin B12: 0 mcg Folate: 17 mcg Vitamin A, IU: 884 IU Vitamin E: 0.52 mg Vitamin K: 10.7 mcg

    Phytonutrients: beta Carotene: 503 mcg beta Cryptoxanthin: 38 mcg Lycopene: 0 mcg

    Lutein and Zeaxanthin: 544 mcg

     

    Fresh Red Chile Peppers - The following information is for one serving of red sweet peppers. That would be about one cup of sliced red sweet peppers, or 92 grams. This general information is for any variety of sweet red peppers.

     

    Macronutrients: Water: 84.83 g Calories: 24 Protein: 0.91 g Carbohydrates: 5.55 g Fiber: 1.8 g Sugars: 3.86 g Total Fat: 0.28 g Saturated Fat: 0.054 g Monounsaturated Fat: 0.006 g Polyunsaturated Fat: 0.144 g Cholesterol: 0 mg Micronutrients: Calcium: 6 mg Iron: 0.40 mg Magnesium: 11 mg Phosphorus: 24 mg Potassium: 194 mg Sodium: 2 mg Zinc: 0.23 mg Vitamin C: 174.8 mg Thiamin: 0.050 mg Riboflavin: 0.078 mg Niacin: 0.901 mg Pantothenic Acid: 0.292 mg Vitamin B6: 0.268 mg Vitamin B12: 0 mcg Folate: 17 mcg Vitamin A, IU: 2881 IU Vitamin E: 1.45 mg Vitamin K: 4.5 mcg Phytonutrients: beta Carotene: 1494 mcg beta Cryptoxanthin: 451 mcg Lycopene: 283 mcg Lutein and Zeaxanthin: 47 mcg

     

    Important Vitamins and Minerals found in Chile Peppers

     

    Calcium

    Importance: Builds and maintains bones and teeth; regulates heart rhythm; eases

    insomnia; helps regulate the passage of nutrients in & out of the cell walls; assists in

    normal blood clotting; helps maintain proper nerve and muscle function; lowers blood

    pressure; important to normal kidney function and in current medical research reduces the incidence of colon cancer, and reduces blood cholesterol levels. 

    Deficiency Symptoms: May result in arm and leg muscles spasms, softening of bones,

    back and leg cramps, brittle bones, rickets, poor growth, osteoporosis ( a deterioration of the bones), tooth decay, depression.

     

    Iron

    Importance: Its major function is to combine with protein and copper in making

    hemoglobin. Hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood from the lungs to the tissues

    which need oxygen to maintain basic life functions. Iron builds up the quality of the

    blood and increases resistance to stress and disease. It is also necessary for the formation of myoglobin which is found only in muscle tissue. Myoglobin supplies oxygen to muscle cells for use in the chemical reaction that results in muscle contraction. Iron also prevent fatigue and promotes good skin tone. 

    Deficiency Symptoms: May result in weakness, paleness of skin, constipation, anemia.

     

    Magnesium

    Importance: Plays an important role in regulating the neuromuscular activity of the heart; maintains normal heart rhythm; necessary for proper calcium & Vitamin C metabolism; converts blood sugar into energy. 

    Deficiency Symptoms: May result in calcium depletion, heart spasms, nervousness,

    muscular excitability, confusion; kidney stones.

     

    Phosphorous

    Importance: Works with calcium to build strong bones and teeth. Helps in metabolism.

     

    Potassium

    Importance: Works with sodium to regulate the body's waste balance and normalize heart rhythms; aids in clear thinking by sending oxygen to the brain; preserves proper

    alkalinity of body fluids; stimulates the kidneys to eliminate poisonous body wastes;

    assists in reducing high blood pressure; promotes healthy skin. 

    Deficiency Symptoms: May result in poor reflexes, nervous disorders, respiratory failure,

    cardiac arrest, muscle damage.

     

    Vitamin C

    Importance: Is essential in wound healing and in the formation of collagen, a protein

    important in the formation of healthy skin, tendons, bones, and supportive tissues.

    Deficiency Symptoms: May result in defective collagen formation and is marked by joint pains, irritability, growth retardation, anemia, shortness of breath, and increased susceptibility to infection.

     

    Vitamin A

    Importance: Has a direct role in vision and is a component of a pigment present in the

    retina of the eye. It is essential for the proper functioning of most body organs and also

    affects the functioning of the immune system.

     

    Riboflavin or Vitamin B2:

    Importance: Is required to complete several reactions in the energy cycle.

    Reddening of the lips with cracks at the corners of the mouth, inflammation of the

    tongue, and a greasy, scaly inflammation of the skin are common symptoms of

    deficiency.

     

    Niacin or nicotinic acid :

    Importance: Helps the metabolism of carbohydrates. Prolonged deprivation

    leads to pellagra, a disease characterized by skin lesions, gastrointestinal disturbance, and nervous symptoms.

     

    Vitamin B6

    Importance: Is a coenzyme for several enzyme systems involved in the metabolism of

    proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. No human disease has been found to be caused by a

    deficiency of this vitamin. Chronic use of large doses of vitamin B6 can create

    dependency and cause complications in the peripheral nervous system.

     

    Folate or folic acid :

    Importance: Is necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids and the formation of

    red blood cells. Folic-acid deficiency most commonly causes folic-acid-deficiency

    anemia. Symptoms include gastrointestinal problems, such as sore tongue, cracks at the corners of the mouth, diarrhea, and ulceration of the stomach and intestines. Large doses of folic acid can cause convulsions and other nervous-system problems.

     

    Tryptophan (Essential Amino Acid) 

    Importance: A natural relaxant, helps alleviate insomnia by inducing normal sleep; reduces anxiety &depression; helps in the treatment of migraine headaches; helps the immune system; helps reduce the risk of artery & heart spasms; works with Lysine in reducing cholesterol levels.

     

    Lysine (Essential Amino Acid) 

    Importance: Insures the adequate absorption of calcium; helps form collagen ( which makes up bone cartilage & connective tissues); aids in the production of antibodies, hormones &enzymes. Recent studies have shown that Lysine may be effective against herpes by improving the balance of nutrients that reduce viral growth. A deficiency may result in tiredness, inability to concentrate, irritability, bloodshot eyes, retarded growth, hair loss, anemia & reproductive problems

     

    Phenylalaine (Essential Amino Acid)

    Importance: Used by the brain to produce Norepinephrine, a chemical that transmitssignals between nerve cells and the brain; keeps you awake & alert;

    reduces hunger pains; functions as an antidepressant and helps improve memory.

     

    Cooking Stuffed Peppers

     

    Depending on the cuisine, stuffed pepper dishes use a very wide variety of ingredients.  The basic formula for stuffed peppers is peppers, of course, with a meat filling (although vegetarian is very popular) and a starch. The filling may include other vegetables, cheese of some sort, or a sauce. Meats may be beef, pork, poultry, seafood or lamb. The starch is typically rice but may also be orzo, couscous, or quinoa.

    in a pan or baked in an oven until the peppers are soft.

    Middle East – Traveling from country to country Traditional Preparations of Stuffed Peppers in World Cuisines

    United States -   Stuffed Peppers in American cuisine typically involves bell peppers filled with a stuffing of ground hamburger mixed with breadcrumbs or rice, egg, herbs and spices. The cooking technique requires boiling the peppers, then stuffing them, covering with cheese and baking until the peppers are soft. The dish is sometimes referred to as “stuffed mangoes” in some parts of the United States.

    Romania - Ardeiumpluti is Romanian for "stuffed peppers". This dish is usually prepared with bell peppers, stuffed with ground meat (usually pork), rice, onion and other vegetables and spices, and then boiled in a sauce made from cream, tomatoes and spices.

    Mexico – There are many stuffed pepper dishes in Mexican cuisine but a common is Chiles Rellenos.  Chile Rellenos is made from roasted green Pasilla or Poblanochiles, stuffed with queso fresco cheese and meat. The chiles are then battered and fried. The dish is served covered in sauce.

    India - BharvanMirch or BharvaHariMirch consists of bell peppers (Shimla mirch) stuffed with cooked mashed potatoes and onions, seasoned with chili, turmeric, coriander, cilantro, salt and lemon juice. The peppers are then either browned, one will find a whole host of varying stuffed pepper dishes throughout the Middle East. An Arab dish, FilfilMahshi, is made from stuffing peppers with spiced rice and beef or lamb.

    Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia - Töltött paprika is the Hungarian dish of stuffed peppers filled with minced meat and rice mixed with herbs and spices. In Hungary and Bulgaria the dish may be served with yogurt.

    Spain - Pimientos Rellenos are part of the traditional Spanish cuisine, especially that of the regions of the Basque Country and Catalonia. Piquillo peppers are typically used in this dish. The peppers may be stuffed with Manchego cheese, beef or fish.

    Stuffed Bell Peppers

    (United States)

     

     

    Ingredients:

    2 tablespoons, extra virgin olive oil

    1lb. good quality chorizo sausage, crumbled (squeezed out of the casing)

    1 large onion, chopped finely

    3 large garlic cloves, chopped finely

    A handful of fresh parsley, chopped finely

    4 large bell peppers, tops cut away, bottoms trimmed slightly to stand up flat, and seeds removed (note: I use the peppers from the bottom trim to add to the mixture.)

    15.5 oz black beans, drained

    1 cup long grained rice

    8 oz. good crumbling cheese such as feta, or Mexican crumbling cheese

    Salt and pepper

    Water

    Note: Salsa or a rich flavored tomato sauce is a good choice for topping the peppers while baking.



    Directions:

    1.  Preheat oven to 350F degrees.

     

    2.  In a large saute pan, heat olive oil over medium heat.  Add crumbled sausage, onion, chopped leftover bell pepper, and garlic.  Salt and pepper to taste.  Cook until soft, about 5-6 minutes.

    Note: Continue to break up the sausage while cooking with a spoon.

     

    3.  Add rice and saute for 3-5 minutes.  

     

    4.  Add water (approximately 1 cup), black beans and parsley.

     

    5.  Turn heat to low, cover and cook for 5 minutes.

    Note: This is a good time to adjust seasonings to taste

     

    6.  Pour just enough water to cover the bottom of the baking dish about 1/8-inch.

     

    7.  Stuff the bell peppers with the rice mixture, place on the cut off tops, and place in the baking dish.

     

    8.  Cover tightly with aluminum foil (to allow the peppers to steam).  Bake peppers until the peppers are tender, and the filling is heated through approximately 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

    Filfil Rumi Mahshi

    (Middle Eastern Stuffed Peppers)

     

    Ingredients

    Directions:

     

    Choose average-sized green peppers.Wash the peppers and cut out the stems.Core them using an apple-corer or a paring knife.Make the stuffing by gently frying the pine nuts and chopped unions in olive oil.Add a washed rice and cook, stirring, for 5 minutes.Add the currants, salt, pepper and sugar.Pour in water to about two times the depth of the other ingredients in the pot.Simmer until the water is absorbed.Add the mint, all spices and the lemon juice.

     

    When it’s cool, stuff each pepper freely, as the rice will swell.Cover the open end of pepper using a slice of tomato just like a lid.Set the stuffed peppers in a layer in a huge pan or dish.Sprinkle it with salt and sugar, then drizzle a little olive oil and 250 milliliters (1 cup) of water over them and then simmer it very slowly until the peppers are just tender.

     

    Decorate it with chopped parsley, lemon slices and tomato slices or wedges, and refrigerate.Serve cool.

    Chiles Rellenos con Queso

    (Mexican)

    The Chiles:

    In Mexico the Chili Poblano, a dark green triangular shaped chile 3” to 4” in length that varies in hotness from mild to quite picante, is the chili of choice for this recipe. Poblanos are available in local supermarkets here in Oregon and I would imagine that they are found in any area of the U.S. with significant Mexican population. If you can’t get Poblanos, a large green Anaheim makes an acceptable substitute, as do any of the long green chiles from New Mexico. Bell peppers won’t do as the flesh is too thick.

    Preparing the chiles:

    At least two chiles per person should be used. I usually make a couple extra while I’m at it, as they are great for breakfast the next day. To peel the tough skin from the chiles, blacken them by putting them directly in the flame of the burner on a gas stove or do it in a broiler or toaster oven, or best yet, on a charcoal barbecue grill. However you do it, keep turning the pepper so as to blacken it evenly over its entire surface without burning through or cooking it too much. When black and blistered, place the pepper in a plastic bag of type used for produce in supermarkets. Keep the bag closed. After 20 to 30 minutes you can start peeling the peppers. This is somewhat laborious but if you have roasted them correctly and left them long enough in the plastic bag, the tough outer skin peels off fairly easily and it is sort of fun -- like peeling sunburned skin from your body.

    When the pepper is peeled, make an incision with a sharp paring knife in the side of the pepper, starting at the big end and going down a couple of inches. With the paring knife, cut the main seed pod just under the inside of the stem and pull it out being careful not to rip the chili. Rinse with cold water in the sink. Pull out any ribs and seeds that don’t come out with the main seed cluster and rinse again, being careful not to rip the chili too much. When peeled, roll the chiles in white flour and set aside.

    The Cheese:

    Any cheese that melts nicely will do for the stuffing. The better the cheese, the better the end result, but even a supermarket Monterey Jack or Mozzarella works well. In Mexico, Panela (a fresh ricotta-like cheese) is often used. Oaxaca or Chihuahua cheese is very good as well.

    Cut the cheese in thin strips approximately as long as the chili you are stuffing. Insert the cheese through the slit in the chili. Put in a good amount but don’t stuff it tightly as it expands when it melts. Seal the slit in the chili with thin wooden toothpicks. Roll in the flour again and set aside.

    The Tomato Sauce:

    Prepare a goodly amount of sauce.
    Fill a 10” Dutch oven or big sauce pan at least 3” deep. I use a simple, rather thin sauce made of:

    Sauté the onions and garlic in enough oil.When the onions just begin to brown, stir in the tomatoes. Mash up the tomatoes and add juice or water to get desired consistency. Taste for salt and add as needed. Simmer on low heat while you do all the rest of the process.

    The Egg Batter:

    Separate one egg for every two chiles. Beat the whites until stiff. Beat the yolk a little and fold into the beaten whites.

    The Frying:

    Heat cooking oil 1” to 2” deep in a big frying pan to about 375º F. Holding the chili by the stem dip it in the egg batter until well coated. (A rubber spatula can be used to spread batter if it doesn’t cover the entire chili ). Fry on the surface of the oil, slowly rotating the chili until it is lightly browned. You can do two or three at a time but it is a little tricky and requires asbestos fingers. As each chili is browned, place it carefully in the tomato sauce, ladling sauce to completely cover the pepper. Keep the sauce on very low heat.

    Heat the chiles in the sauce at least long enough to melt the cheese. 15 minutes should be a minimum. It doesn’t hurt to leave them in longer as they just soak up flavor from the sauce. Serve with rice.

    Turkish Stuffed Peppers

    BiberDolmasi

    In Turkey green peppers (yesilbiber) are very, very small and I would be able to get 20 in a large saucepan.  

    Ingredients

     

    8 green or red bell peppers

    ¾ pound lean beef mince

    ¼ cup rice

    1 medium onion

    2 medium tomatoes

    1/2 bunch of dill

    3 tablespoons tomato puree

    3 tablespoons olive oil

    1 tspsalt

    1 tsppepper

    Directions

    Serve alone or if you want to go native, add a chopped clove of garlic to a large pot of yogurt and serve with yogurt.


     

    Punjene Paprika

    (Serbian Stuffed Peppers)

    This is a traditional Serbian recipe for a classic dish of peppers stuffed with meat and vegetables before being stewed with potatoes in the oven.

    Ingredients:

    6 to 8 red bell peppers (or large paprika peppers)

    1 pound beef or pork mince (or a mixture)

    5 ounces rice

    2 carrots, grated

    2 onions, finely chopped

    1 tsp parsley, chopped

    2 tsp salt

    ½ cup olive oil

    3 potatoes

    2 tbsp plain flour

    1 tsp sweet paprika

    1 tsp vegetable or herb stock powder

    Punjene Paprika

    Directions

    Slice the tops of the peppers (discard the tops) and remove the seeds and membranes. Add the olive oil to a pan and use to fry the onions and carrots over high heat, stirring constantly. After about 3 minutes add the minced meat and season with salt. Fry for another 5 minutes then take off the heat and stir-in the rice, plain flour, paprika and stock powder.

    Stir the mixture well to combine then spoon into the peppers to fill them. Slice the potatoes then cover the top of each pepper with one or two slices of potato (easiest if the potatoes are sliced lengthways). Place the peppers in a roasting dish and sprinkle the remaining potato slices between them. Pour water over the top until the peppers are just covered then cover with foil, transfer to an oven pre-heated to 150°C and cook gently for about 45 minutes. When ready, sprinkle chopped parsley over the top and serve.

     

    image of stuffed peppers